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Water Sector Security Resources

Key:  
T = Threats A = Awareness
  VA = VA Methodology CM = Countermeasures
M = Management ERP = Emergency Response Planning


Title Principle Focus

Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector
Author: Congressional Research Service (CRS) May 26, 2009. Prepared by Claudia Copeland.
Description: Summary of legislative initiatives in water sector security, including
enhanced physical security, communication and coordination, and research.
Resource Number: W-76

A
A Review of the EPA Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan
Author: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: The EPA recently developed the Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan. The Action Plan outlines research and technical support needs for preventing, preparing for, and responding to physical, cyber, and contaminant attacks on drinking water and wastewater systems and presents a prioritized list of projects to address these needs.
Resource Number: W-1
T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP
Actual & Threatened Security Events at Water Utilities
Author:
American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) 2003. Prepared by O'Brien & Gere Engineers, Inc
Description: An executive summary is not available for this report. Due to its sensitive nature, a special order process is required for this report.  Send an email to rfreports@awwarf.org to begin the order process.
Resource Number: W-2
T
ASDWA Critical Infrasturcture Protection Website
Author: Association of State Drinking Water Administrators
Description:  Here you will find a comprehensive collection of Internet resources dealing with security and protection for drinking water infrastructure. The documents are posted in the format that they were in when they were sent to ASDWA [Word, WordPerfect, PDF].
Resource Number: W-3
T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP
Asset Based Vulnerability Checklist for Wastewater Utilities
Author:
Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. 2002
Description: This checklist was designed to help utility managers and their staffs to identify and evaluate a range of vulnerabilities that could place their assets - physical plant, people, knowledge base, information technology, and customers - in jeopardy. The checklist is meant to stimulate thought and discussion, covering issues related to security such as computer hacking, vandalism and more severe events like natural disasters and terrorist activity.
Resource Number: W-4
T,A,M
Baseline Threat Information for Vulnerability Assessments of Community Water Systems
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: The Baseline Threat Document provides an overview of threats, methodologies, and strategies for water utilities to consider as they develop vulnerability assessments, but it is not a blueprint for developing a vulnerability assessment. All community drinking water systems that serve more than 3,300 people are eligible to receive a copy of the document.
Resource Number: W-5
T,VA,A
California Emergency Response Plan Guidance for Public Drinking Water Systems
Author:
California Department of Health Services; Drinking Water Field Operations Branch; December 2003.
Description: This document is designed to assist California public water systems in developing or revising an emergency response plan that will meet all state and federal requirements. More importantly, this document should assist public water systems in planning and preparing for both natural and man-made disasters.
Resource Number: W-6
ERP
Design of Early Warning & Predictive Source Water Monitoring Systems
Author:
Published by AWWA and Awwa Research Foundation Edition: 2001, Softbound, 399 pp. ISBN 1-58321-172-1; Catalog Number 90878 Author: Walter M. Grayman, Rolf A. Deininger, Richard M. Males
Description: This report provides expert guidance and specially developed software for assessing your risk of unexpected contamination of raw water sources. It also provides a recommended plan of action to help you design an early-warning monitor system for detecting and responding to contamination spills in your source waters
Resource Number: W-7
T,A,ERP
Drinking Water Security Posters, Flyers and Brochures
Author:
US EPA and various other agencies
Description: These fliers, brochures, posters and other materials are available to download in different formats. They can be posted in public areas or distributed to the public and other agencies to help educate and alert communities about water security.
Resource Number: W-8
A
Drinking Water System Emergency Response Guidebook
Author:
Kim Dyches, Emergency Response Coordinator, Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City, UT. August 2001
Description: This guidebook lists actions necessary to assist drinking water system managers in the preparation of disaster and/or emergency response plans. This includes prioritizing the work and repair needed at the facility, public notification, and dispatch of personnel.
Resource Number: W-9
ERP
Emergency Planning for Municipal Wastewater
Author: Water Environment Research Foundation (WEF) 
ISBN: 0943244463
Description: Not Reviewed - Book suppliers
Resource Number: W-10
ERP
Emergency Planning for Water Utilities (M19)
Author: AWWA Manual M-19 (Fourth Edition). American Water Works Association (AWWA). 2001. ISBN: 1-58321-135-7
Description: This source summarizes preparedness planning and emergency response, recovery, and training for water utilities. The manual describes the legal responsibilities of water utilities to plan for emergencies, and details the methods in which a utility can meet those responsibilities. There is a chapter in the manual that addresses vulnerability assessment.
Resource Number: W-11
T,ERP
Emergency Response Plan Guidance for Small and Medium Community Water Systems to Comply with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
Author: U.S. EPA Office of Water (4601M) EPA 816-R-04-002 April 2004
Description: The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on developing or revising Emergency Response Plans (ERPs) for small- and medium-sized community drinking water systems. In using the terms "small and medium-sized" within this document, USEPA is referring to CWS which serve populations from 3,301 to 99,999
Resource Number:  W-12
 
Emergency Response Plan Guidance for Public Drinking Water Systems
Author:
Water Environment Research Foundation in Collaboration with U.S. EPA. November 2004.
Description: This document supports the development of wastewater system emergency response plans by providing suggestions regarding content, plan structure and organization, and additional informational sources. The document also illustrates important emergency planning concepts in a wastewater system context such as chain-of-command, communication and notification plans, personnel safety provisions, plan initiation and decision making process, emergency operations centers, emergency response training, and plan evaluation.
Resource Number: W-13
A,M,ERP

Emergency Response Planning Guide for Public Drinking Water Systems
Author:
Washington State Department of Health, Environmental Health Programs, Division of Drinking Water. DOH Publication #331-211 May 2003
Description: This document is meant to provide water utilities with a starting point for their emergency response plans. This document includes information about the importance of an emergency response plan and a template for preparing an emergency response plan.
Resource Number: W-14

ERP

Emergency Response Planning: For Corporate and Municipal Managers
Author:
Paul Erickson.  Hardcover: 564 pages Publisher: Academic Press; 1st edition (January 15, 1999) ISBN: 012241540X
Description: Emergency Response Planning is designed to help corporate and municipal managers quickly understand their roles in proactive and reactive emergency management. Author Paul Erickson shows how to develop partnerships with federal, state, and local government agencies, as well as community groups in order to prevent, prepare for, and respond to natural disasters and manmade emergencies. Emergency Response Planning provides essential information to help you comply with government regulations, design an emergency response plan, train personnel, use the proper safety equipment, safeguard information systems, and resume normal operations after an emergency as quickly as possible. It will also help consultants design emergency response plans for their clients, and provide practical information for students studying business continuity and emergency issues.

Available from booksellers.
Resource Number: W-15

ERP

Emergency Response Tabletop Exercises for Drinking Water and Wastewater Systems CD
Author: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EPA 817-C-05-001 January 2005
Description: The Emergency Response Tabletop Exercises for Drinking Water and Wastewater Systems CD was developed by EPA to allow state, regional, and local water and wastewater utility staff prepare and conduct incident response training. The CD contains materials and guidance to assist first responders to successfully plan and conduct simulated exercises that represent several emergency response scenarios. These simulated scenarios require them to function in the capacity that would be expected of them in a real event.
Resource Number: W-16

T,M,ERP

Guarding Against Terrorist And Security Threats - Suggested Measures For Drinking Water And Wastewater Utilities (Water Utilities)
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: The Department of Homeland Security established a five-tiered Homeland Security Advisory System. The system establishes a set of graduated levels that change in response to increases or decreases in terrorist threats. The threat levels are colored coded, beginning with green, and increasing in severity through blue, yellow, orange, and red. This document provides suggested steps water utilities should consider implementing in the areas of detection, preparedness, prevention, and protection for each threat level.
Resource Number: W-17

T,M,ERP

Guidance for Water Utility Response, Recovery, and Remediation Actions for Man-Made and/or Technological Emergencies
Author: EPA Office of Water. April 2002. EPA 810-R-02-001
Description: This document provides guidance for emergency response, recovery and remediation at WTPs in response to incidents such as contamination of the water system or intrusion through the SCADA system. Guidance matrices for the responses to these different incidents are included in the document.
Resource Number: W-18

T,M,ERP

Homeland Security Presidential Directive / HSPD-7 Subject: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection
Author: The White House December 17, 2003
Description: This directive establishes a national policy for Federal departments and agencies to identify and prioritize United States critical infrastructure and key resources and to protect them from terrorist attacks. The directive also designates EPA as the sector specific agency responsible for infrastructure protection activities for the nation's drinking water and wastewater systems.
Resource Number: W-19

M

Instructions to Assist Community Water Systems in Complying with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
Author:
U.S. EPA Office of Water EPA 810-B-02-001 January 2003
Description: Describes how to comply with requirements for certification and submission of vulnerability assessments and completion and certification of emergency response plans.
Resource Number: W-20

T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP

Instructions to Assist Community Water Systems in Complying With the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (EPA 810-B-02-001, dated January 2003) (Addendum to the)
Author: U.S. EPA Office of Water October 2003
Description: EPA has prepared important clarifications, corrections, and additions as an addendum to the original instructions.
Resource Number: W-21

T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP

Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance EPA Website
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: This guide can be used by any utility to create an emergency response plan that meets state and federal requirements.
Resource Number: W-22

ERP

Interim Voluntary Guidelines for Designing on Online Contaminant Monitoring System
Author: American Society of Civil Engineers in Conjunction with U.S. EPA. December 9, 2004.
Description: This report is focused on the design of online contamination monitoring systems (OCMSs) for both water supply and wastewater/stormwater systems. The document addresses utilities from small to very large. The report:

  • Identifies the key elements of design methodology applicable to an OCMS.
  • Discusses the important issues that need to be resolved in designing such a system.
  • Identifies key decisions that need to be made in the design process.
  • Explores the direction in which such standards might be developed by postulating interim guidance.

Resource Number: W-23

CM

Interim Voluntary Security Guidance for Wastewater / Stormwater Utilities
Author:
Water Environment Federation in Conjunction with U.S. EPA. December 9, 2004.
Description: The primary purpose of this document is to provide considerations for the design of wastewater and stormwater systems that can help to reduce the risks posed by malevolent threats. The document is intended to be used by wastewater and stormwater professionals who have completed a vulnerability assessment and are looking for ways to improve the security of their system through utility management, facility operations, and infrastructure design.
Resource Number: W-24

T,CM,A,M,ERP

Interim Voluntary Security Guidance for Water Utilities
Author: American Water Works Association in Conjunction with U.S. EPA. December 9, 2004.
Description: The purpose of this guidance is to provide a centralized starting point for utilities as they incorporate modern security practices into the construction or retrofit of their water systems. The guidance focuses on these four common principles: Maintaining decision-making about security at the local utility level

  • Developing a balanced approach to security by applying design, management, and operations strategies
  • Developing cost-effective solutions
  • Successfully introducing security into the culture of water utilities
Resource Number: W-25
M

Large Water System Emergency Response Plan Outline: Guidance to Assist Community Water Systems in Complying with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002
Author:
U.S. EPA Office of Water (4601M) EPA 810-F-03-007 July 2003
Description: Guidance developed by EPA to aid utilities in preparing emergency response plans as required by the Bioterrorism Act. Provides guidance that is not a requirement of the federal government, and some sections might not be applicable to every system. States might have requirements that supersede this outline.
Resource Number: W-26

T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP

Legal Issues in a Time of Crisis Checklist
Author: Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. 2002.
Description: The Legal Checklist is intended to assist wastewater treatment agencies in identifying the range of legal considerations public utility attorneys and managers should consider relative to potential acts of terrorism or other crisis situations. The Legal Checklist is designed to accompany AMSA's Asset-Based Vulnerability Checklist. The Legal Checklist goes in depth into a number of important issues to public agencies, including maintaining confidentiality of a vulnerability assessment, employee background checks, screening, surveillance and other key issues in the post-September 11th world.
Resource Number: W-27

M

Natural Disaster Management for Wastewater Treatment Facilities
Author:
Water Environment Federation. 1999. ISBN: 1-57278-154-8.
Description: This source describes the probabilities of wastewater facility damage resulting from several different types of natural disasters. For earthquakes, floods and hurricanes, the document summarizes the physics of the event, the vulnerabilities of wastewater facilities to that event, and the expected damage resulting from it. It also describes how to execute a disaster management plan. Finally, the document includes a list of case studies describing some actual disasters that occurred at WWTPs, the responses to those disasters, and lessons learned from the events.

Available from book retailers.
Resource Number: W-28

T,VA,CM,A,ERP

NEWWA ASSET Vulnerability Assessment Tool for Small Systems
Author:
New England Water Works Association (NEWWA)
Description: Automated Security Survey & Evaluation Tool (ASSET) for small and medium-sized drinking water systems. ASSET is a self-guided software program designed to help drinking water systems complete a vulnerability assessment, as well as to improve their security and their responsiveness to a range of threats.

If you would like to obtain a copy of ASSET contact Chuck Larson on the NEWWA staff at (508) 893-7979 or email CLarson@newwa.org.
Resource Number: W-29

T,VA,CM,A,ERP

Optimal Layout of Early Warning Detection Stations for Water Distribution Systems Security
Author:
Avi Ostfeld, Member, ASCE, (Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion.Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.
Description: Since September 11, 2001 the U.S. EPA's water protection task force and regional offices have initiated massive actions to improve the security of the drinking water infrastructure. A methodology is presented for finding the optimal layout of an early warning detection system (EWDS). The detection system is comprised of a set of monitoring stations aimed at capturing deliberate external terrorist hazard intrusions through water distribution system nodes-sources, tanks, and consumers. The optimization considers extended period unsteady hydraulics and water quality conditions for a given defensive level of service to the public, defined as a maximum volume of polluted water exposure at a concentration higher than a minimum hazard level. Such a scheme provides an EWDS for a deliberate terrorist external hazard intrusion, as well as for accidental contamination entries under unsteady conditions.a problem that currently has not been solved. The methodology is cast in a genetic algorithm framework for integration with EPANET and is demonstrated through two example applications
Resource Number:
W-30

CM,M

Performance Verification Testing: Rapid Toxicity Monitoring and Detection Systems
Author: US EPA, Water Security Division, Office of Water, Washington, DC
Description: In this fact sheet, the Environmental Technology Verification Program presents test results for technologies capable of detecting contaminants in water. Rapid toxicity monitoring and detection devices were tested and used to indirectly measure the presence of eight chemical contaminants in two different drinking water supplies.
Resource Number: W-31

T,CM,ERP

Perspectives on Water Infrastructure Security
Author:
Water Environment Federation. WEFTEC 2001 Technical Session.
Description: A 1997 report by the Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection stated that U.S. water supplies are vulnerable to terrorist attacks - both in the physical infrastructure and contamination area. Concern about the vulnerability of water systems to terrorism has risen since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, and water professionals are now evaluating security at their facilities. The Water Environment Federation added two sessions to the WECTEC 2001 technical program that addressed these issues. These cassette tapes are a transcription of the technical sessions with an overview of security measures the water/wastewater profession has taken, informational resources, and the open discussions that took place.

Order No: CA1100

Resource Number: W-32

T,CM,A

Potential Contamination Due to Cross-Connections and Backflow and the Associated Health Risks
Author: US EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water August 2002
Description: The goals of this document are to review: causes of contamination through cross-connections; the magnitude of risk associated with cross-connections and backflow; costs of backflow contamination incidents; other problems associated with backflow incidents; suitable measures for preventing and correcting problems caused by cross-connections and backflow; possible indicators of a backflow incident; and research opportunities.
Resource Number: W-33

T,CM,ERP

Protecting Water System Security Information
Author:
National Conference of State Legislatures September 2003
Description: Many states have considered or have adopted amendments to their Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) legislation to make sensitive security information on drinking water systems exempt from public disclosure under a FOIA request. These states want to prevent information regarding the potential infrastructure and security vulnerabilities of a public water supply from being accessed by adversaries seeking to cause harm. To determine which states have statutory authority to protect such information from public disclosure, the National Conference of State Legislatures conducted an extensive review and published the findings.
Resource Number:
W-34

A,M

Protecting Workers from Exposure to Chemical and Physical Hazards at Wastewater Treatment Plants; Final Report
Author: Principal Investigator: Rumana Riffat, Ph.D., P.E. Water Environment Research Foundation. 1999. ISBN: 1-893664-11-2
Description: This source identifies potential physical and chemical exposure hazards at wastewater treatment plants and discusses methods to control and prevent these hazards. It provides reported data concerning chemical exposures and fatalities, as well as some methods for hazard evaluation and engineering controls for hazard mitigation and reduction. Finally it lists various information from chemical manufacturers and WWTPs, and also regulations concerning hazards that are applicable to wastewater utilities.

Available from book suppliers.
Resource Number: W-35

T,CM,A,ERP

Protecting Your Community's Assets: A Guide for Small Wastewater Systems
Author:
National Environmental Training Center for Small Communities
Description: This guide helps utility managers, operators, and local officials improve security and plan for emergency situations affecting wastewater treatment systems. The guide is designed for those who work with systems serving less than 10,000 people, although it may also be of use to those who work in larger systems.

You may also request a printed and bound hard copy of this guide by calling (800) 624-8301, and asking for product TRBKMG03. Shipping and handling charges may apply.
Resource Number:
W-36

VA,CM,A,M,ERP

Protocol to Secure Vulnerability Assessments Submitted by Community Water Systems to EPA
Author:
US EPA November 2002
Description: This document summarizes key elements of the strict security arrangements that have been implemented to protect the vulnerability assessments community water systems submit to EPA. This information protection protocol details such factors as limits on persons allowed access to the assessments, aspects of the storage and handling of the documents, document tracking systems, and persons responsible for the security of the information.
Resource Number: W-37

A

Public Law 107-188 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (Bioterrorism Act)
Author:
116 STAT. 682 PUBLIC LAW 107-188-JUNE 12, 2002
Description: The Bioterrorism Act assigns EPA and water utilities responsibilities to enhance water sector security and to develop response measures for potential threats to the nation's water supplies and systems. The Bioterrorism Act requires every community water system serving more than 3,300 persons to:

  • Conduct a vulnerability assessment.Certify and submit a copy of the vulnerability assessment to the EPA Administrator.
  • Prepare or revise an emergency response plan based on the results of the vulnerability assessment.
  • Certify to the EPA Administrator, within 6 months of completing the assessment, that an emergency response plan has been completed or updated.

Resource Number: W-38

T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP

Reinventing Water and Wastewater Systems: Global Lessons for Improving Water Management
Author: Paul Seidenstat, David Haarmeyer, Simon Hakim Hardcover: 496 pages ; Publisher: John Wiley & Sons; (July 12, 2002) ISBN: 047106422X
Description: A critical and insightful look at the past, present, and future state of water and wastewater services In response to the worldwide water crisis foreseen by many experts, Reinventing Water and Wastewater Systems presents practical solutions for making drinking water more affordable and available, as well as strategies for improving water sanitation to satisfy the demands of a growing global population. Through extensive data and case histories, this book demonstrates the potential success of privatizing water delivery and wastewater treatment facilities. In addition, it provides examples of state-of-the-art techniques for achieving higher efficiencies in water infrastructure facilities through reengineering, improved technologies, and quality benchmarking. Contributed chapters are provided by leading global engineers and economists from such companies as the World Bank, Stone and Weber Consultants, the Atlantis Water Fund, and the Anglian Water Company. Coverage by these experts includes exploring regulatory frameworks, financing the water and wastewater infrastructure, reinventing public sector operations, analyzing the past and future of the global water industry, and examining the restructuring operations in selected U.S. cities. Reinventing Water and Wastewater Systems: Global Lessons for Improving Water Management is a constructive volume for civil engineers working in water and wastewater treatment, urban and regional planners, and environmental engineers, as well as government administrators overseeing infrastructure and water systems and financial institutions involved with underwriting major water improvement projects.

Available from book sellers.
Resource Number: W-39

A,M,ERP

Response Protocol Toolbox - Response Guidelines
Author: 
US EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Interim Final August 2004
Description: An action oriented document to assist drinking water utilities, laboratories, emergency responders, state drinking water programs, technical assistance providers, and public health and law enforcement officials during the management of an ongoing contamination threat or incident. The Response Guidelines are not intended to replace to Response Protocol Toolbox and they do not contain the same detailed information. The guidelines were developed to provide an easy to use document for field and crisis conditions.
Resource Number:
W-40

T,CM,M,ERP

Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents: Interim Final - Overview and Modules 1 - 6
Author: US EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. The Overview and Modules 1 - 4 were issued in December 2003. Module 5 and 6 were issued in April 2004.
Description: These modules provide emergency response planning tools that are designed to help the water sector to effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. Organized in modular format, the Toolbox assists with emergency response preparedness and will be of value to drinking water utilities, laboratories, emergency responders, state drinking water programs, technical assistance providers and public health and law enforcement officials.
Resource Number: W-41

T,CM,M,ERP

Risk Assessment Methodology for Water Utilities (RAM-W)
Author:
Sandia National Laboratories
Description: Methodology for conducting vulnerability assessment programs for drinking water utilities. RAM-W is available only to relevant stakeholders in the water supply community, such as personnel at drinking water utilities, consulting engineers working for drinking water systems, EPA, state drinking water program regulatory personnel, and others providing security for drinking water utilities.

The American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) provides free copies to its subscribers. Any other relevant stakeholder may obtain a copy from the AwwaRF (product 20529) for $85 plus shipping and handling. To order, contact Eric Lovick at 303-734-3441.
Resource Number:
W-42

T,VA,CM,A,M

Safety First: Water Utility Security
Author:
American Water Works Association. 1998. DVD.
Description: This video analyzes security issues at treatment plants at remote locations, and on construction sites. Strategies discussed include preventing vandalism and theft, dealing with bomb threats, and disaster planning.
Resource Number: W-43

T,CM,M

Securing Wastewater Systems
Author:
National Environmental Services Center (NESC)
Description: Discusses WEF, VSAT, and their associated training programs. Also presents: EPA Water Protection Task Force Alert #IV: What Wastewater Utilities Can Do Now To Guard Against Terrorist and Security Threats. Items discussed include: What is this alert? Guarding Against Unplanned Physical Intrusion Making Security a Priority for Employees Coordinating Actions for Effective Emergency Response Investing in Security and Infrastructure Improvements
Resource Number: W-44

T,VA,CM,A,M,ERP

Security Analysis and Response for Water Utilities
Author: American Water Works Association
Description: This is a supplement to the Emergency Planning for Water Utility Management Manual M19. This 25-page booklet is being developed into a longer stand-alone field guide that will include templates and checklists and provides guidance on the assessment of human-induced security risks.
Resource Number: W-45

T,CM,A

Security and Emergency Management System (SEMS) Software Program
Author:
National Rural Water Association (NRWA)
Description: This software program is based on ASDWA/NRWA's "Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment Guide for Small Drinking Water Systems Serving Populations Between 3,300 and 10,000." SEMS replaces NRWA's previous Automated Internet Assessment Engine. It uses the same questions and prompts as the Self-Assessment Guide, but it can also automatically generate an emergency response plan based on vulnerability assessment answers.

For a copy of the software, contact your state Rural Water Association.
Resource Number: W-46

T,VA,CM,ERP

Security Practices Primer for Water Utilities
Author: American Water Works Research Foundation (AWWARF) Report. Prepared by Michael Baker Corporation. Publication Date: June 2005 ISBN: 1843398885
Description: The objective of this project was to provide utility managers and the water community with a comprehensive, easy-to-use primer on security-related policies and procedures. The study focused on how organizations incorporate security procedures into routine operational areas such as human resources, information dissemination, emergency response, media relations, and community coordination. The product should facilitate informed decision-making by utility managers concerning what policies they may want to adopt when addressing security concerns.
Resource Number: W-47

CM,A,ERP

Security Product Guide
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: The guides provide information on a variety of products available to enhance physical security (such as walls, gates, and manhole locks to delay unauthorized entry into buildings or pipe systems) and electronic or cyber security (such as computer firewalls and remote monitoring systems that can report on outlying processes). Other guides present information on monitoring tools that can be used to identify anomalies in process streams or finished water that may represent potential threats. Individual products evaluated in these guides will be applicable to distribution systems, wastewater collection systems, pumping stations, treatment processes, main plant and remote sites, personnel entry, chemical delivery and storage, SCADA, and control systems for water and wastewater treatment systems.
Resource Number:
W-48

CM

Security Vulnerability Assessment for Water Systems - VIDEO
Author: National Environmental, Safety and Health Training Association
Description: EPA's Drinking Water Academy and the National Environmental Training Association have produced a video for small water systems that shows how to develop a vulnerability assessment through music and character-based scenarios. The video highlights the six basic elements common to all vulnerability assessments; and some vulnerability assessment tools available to small systems. A version of the video is also available for water systems with populations under 3,300.
Resource Number: W-49

T,VA,CM

Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment Guide for Small Drinking Water Systems Serving Populations Between 3,300 and 10,000
Author:
Association of State Drinking Water Administrators, National Rural Water Association, and U.S. EPA. November 13, 2002
Description: This Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment Guide is designed to help small water systems determine possible vulnerable components and identify security measures that should be considered in order to protect the system and the customers it serves. This document is designed particularly for systems that serve populations of 3,300 up to 10,000.
Resource Number: W-50

T,VA,CM

Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment Guide for Very Small (<3,300) Systems
Author: Association of State Drinking Water Administrators, National Rural Water Association, and U.S. EPA. June, 2002
Description: This Security Vulnerability Self-Assessment Guide is targeted for drinking water systems serving less than 3,300 people and is designed to help these systems assess their critical components and identify security measures that should be implemented. The document is intended for states and trainers to use, distribute, copy, add specific contact names, and customize for the locality of each system as appropriate.
Resource Number: W-51

T,VA,CM

Sewer Asset Management Decisions, Rehabilitation, and Security
Author:
Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) International Conference on Pipeline Engineering and Construction
Description: The original design life of more than 3.8 million miles of underground utility lines is 30-50 years. A majority of these assets are now over 75 years old and are vulnerable to damage due to aging, excessive demand, misuse, exposure, mismanagement and neglect. Historically rehabilitation has focused on repair rather than replacement however using traditional materials and systems does not always deliver improved performance in current settings and sustained performance in case of emergencies. This paper discusses some recent research efforts in utilizing asset management models for linking the competing objectives in underground infrastructure renewal and includes condition assessment, vulnerability modeling and lifecycle analysis, and pipeline valuation.
Resource Number: W-51

T,VA,CM

Sewer Asset Management Decisions, Rehabilitation, and Security
Author: Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) International Conference on Pipeline Engineering and Construction
Description: The original design life of more than 3.8 million miles of underground utility lines is 30-50 years. A majority of these assets are now over 75 years old and are vulnerable to damage due to aging, excessive demand, misuse, exposure, mismanagement and neglect. Historically rehabilitation has focused on repair rather than replacement however using traditional materials and systems does not always deliver improved performance in current settings and sustained performance in case of emergencies. This paper discusses some recent research efforts in utilizing asset management models for linking the competing objectives in underground infrastructure renewal and includes condition assessment, vulnerability modeling and lifecycle analysis, and pipeline valuation.
Resource Number: W-52

VA

State FOIA Laws: A Guide to Protecting Sensitive Water Security Information
Author:
Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA). 2002.
Description: This guide addresses general themes associated with State Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) issues, FOIA models that water utilities may use in lobbying state legislators, strategies for gaining legislative approval, and a general categorization of laws and policies for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. There is also an outline of recent FOIA amendments passed by the states of Virginia and Iowa.
Resource Number: W-53

M

Survival Guide: Public Communications for Water Professionals
Author: Water Environment Federation (WEF)
Description: This guide developed by communications experts to assist utilities in building good relationships with customers, community leaders, interest groups, and the media.
Resource Number: W-54

M

Top 10 List for Small Groundwater Suppliers
Author:
US EPA Region 1 New England
Description: List of "top ten" things that small groundwater suppliers can do to protect their systems from contamination and other harm. One page flyer.
Resource Number:
W-55

CM,A,M

Top 10 List: Water Supply Emergency Preparedness and Security for Law Enforcement
Author: U.S. EPA Region 1 New England EPA-901-R-2-001.
Description: List of "top ten" things that may help the coordination between law enforcement, the water supply industry, and public health officials to work during an emergency. VISOR CARD format.
Resource Number: W-56

CM,A,M

Trained Security Assistance Providers for Wastewater Systems
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: No-cost, on-site vulnerability assessment and emergency response plan assistance is available to small and medium wastewater utilities through the Wastewater Operator Training Program. These environmental assistance providers received specific training on the wastewater Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (VSAT) software developed by the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies.
Resource Number:
W-57

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Use of the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) to Implement Security Measures at Public Water Systems
Author: US Environmental Protection Agency Fact Sheet. EPA 816-F-02-040. Office of Water. November 2001.
Description: This fact sheet describes the DWSRF program and how water utilities can best use the program to help with security-related infrastructure improvements. The fact sheet lists which security activities are eligible for funding under the program and how states can fund those projects.
Resource Number: W-58

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VSAT User's Manual (Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool)
Author:
Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. PA Government Services, Inc. SCIENTECH, Inc. July 2002.
Description: This document is the user's guide for the AMSA Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (VSAT™), their system to help wastewater utilities analyze their vulnerability to both intentional threats and natural disasters.
Resource Number:
W-59

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Vulnerability Assessment Fact Sheet
Author: US EPA Office of Water EPA 816-F-02-025 November 2002
Description: This fact sheet explains vulnerability assessments, which help water systems to evaluate their susceptibility to potential threats and identify corrective actions to reduce or mitigate the risk of serious consequences from adversarial actions (e.g., vandalism, insider sabotage, terrorist attack).
Resource Number: W-60

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Vulnerability Self Assessment Tool™ for Water & Wastewater Utilities
Author:
AMSA, PA Consulting Group, and Scientech
Description: The Vulnerability Self Assessment Tool (VSAT™) software was developed to support water and wastewater utility vulnerability assessments using a qualitative risk assessment methodology. VSAT™ software is available, free of charge, for wastewater utilities (VSATwastewater™), drinking water utilities (VSATwater™), and for utilities providing both services (VSATwater/wastewater™).
Resource Number:
W-61

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Wastewater Security Assessment Guide for Small Communities
Author: Texas Municipal League
Description: Not Reviewed.

While supplies last, small community personnel may request copies of this guide for their vulnerability assessment team to use by calling (800) 624-8301 or (304) 293-4191, and requesting product number TRBKMG03.
Resource Number: W-62

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Water and Wastewater Security Guide Website
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: EPA has developed a series of Security Product Guides to assist treatment plant operators and utility managers in reducing risks from, and providing protection against, possible natural disasters and intentional terrorist attacks. The guides provide information on a variety of products available to enhance physical security (such as walls, gates, and manhole locks to delay unauthorized entry into buildings or pipe systems) and electronic or cyber security (such as computer firewalls and remote monitoring systems that can report on outlying processes). Other guides present information on monitoring tools that can be used to identify anomalies in process streams or finished water that may represent potential threats. Individual products evaluated in these guides will be applicable to distribution systems, wastewater collection systems, pumping stations, treatment processes, main plant and remote sites, personnel entry, chemical delivery and storage, SCADA, and control systems for water and wastewater treatment systems.
Resource Number:
W-63

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Water Information Sharing and Analysis Center (WaterISAC)
Author: WaterISAC
1620 I Street, NW, Suite 500 Washington, DC 20006
1-866-H2OISAC
Description: WaterISAC is a service developed to provide America's drinking water and wastewater systems with a source of information about water system security and with a secure Web-based environment for early warning of potential threats. Relying on information gathered from federal intelligence, law enforcement, public health, and environmental agencies, and from utility security incident reports, WaterISAC analysts produce and disseminate physical and cyber security information to the water sector.
Resource Number: W-64

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Water Infrastructure Security: Performance Metrics
Author: 
Neil S. Grigg, Fellow, ASCE
Description: Today's risk measures do not embrace the full spectrum of threats, vulnerabilities, or consequences of events. To indicate the status of system security requires merging many categories of information into one indicator. The dimensionality of the problem is high, and in the final analysis, the multi.level, multi.dimensional problem requires a large amount of information. While at present it is not feasible to collect all of the required information, by identifying data items needed enables managers to understand better how to improve security of their systems.
Resource Number:
W-65

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Water Security Channel
Author: WaterISAC 1620 I Street, NW, Suite 500 Washington, DC 20006
Description: A free service of WaterISAC designed to disseminate security information to the broadest wastewater and drinking water community.
Resource Number: W-66

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Water Security Glossary Website
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: A comprehensive glossary maintained by EPA containing definitions of words phrases and acronyms in a water security context.
Resource Number: W-67

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Water Security Related Links Website
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: Provides links to: Trade and industry organizations that are directly related to water security initiatives; clearinghouses and information centers that provide tools and other useful web links related to water security; other federal government agencies (outside of EPA) responsible for implementing programs and initiatives related to water security; state homeland security web sites; state drinking water protection web sites; and other EPA program offices and EPA regional office web sites that are related to water security.
Resource Number: W-68

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Water Security Training Courses, Meetings, and Workshops / Webcasts
Author:
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Description: An EPA website where users can identify training courses, meetings, workshops, and webcasts that are sponsored by EPA and other organizations involved in enhancing the security of water and wastewater utilities. You can identify training opportunities in your state, EPA region, by date, and by the intended audience. You can also identify training courses that have been previously offered.
Resource Number: W-69

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Water Supply Systems Security
Author:
Larry W. Mays ISBN: 0071425314 McGraw-Hill Professional
Description: This book provides a comprehensive, state of the art coverage of the safety and security of water supply systems. This unique and authoritative compendium presents detailed coverage of the major infrastructure issues in water system security, with each chapter providing professional guidance.

Available from book suppliers.
Resource Number: W-70

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Water System Security and Emergency Response Planning - Website
Author:
Washington State Department of Health
Description: A Washington state website where users can identify training courses, access publications, access a water system database, and see the latest postings.
Resource Number:
  W-71

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Water System Security: A Field Guide
Author: American Water Works Association. Technical Editor: Joseph Bernowsky, P.E. 2002. ISBN: 1-58321-193-4.
Description: This document is a "toolbox" that provides water utility managers and operations staff with guidance and assistance in assessing and upgrading the security of small and medium-size water utilities. The guide contains sections covering the emergency planning process, vulnerability assessment, mitigation measures, and emergency response. It also contains several security checklists and other useful resources relating to water security issues.
Resource Number: W-72

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Water System Telephone Threat Identification Checklist
Author:
US EPA Region 1 New England February 2002
Description: One page checklist to record and report information regarding a threatening phone call pertaining to an act against the water system.
Resource Number:
W-73

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Water Watchers: Helping to Protect Your Local Water System
Author: U.S. EPA EPA-901-F-03002 September 2003
Description: Brochure for public/customer distribution promoting security awareness, vigilance, and incident reporting.
Resource Number: W-74

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What Wastewater Utilities Can Do Now to Guard Against Terrorist and Security Threats
Author:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management. October 2001.
Description: This is a fact sheet that provides several basic countermeasures for improving WWTP security. The fact sheet also provides a list of useful resources for security information.
Resource Number:
W-75

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